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Category: Engineering

HELICAL ANTENNA – Study Material

Helical antenna is an example of wire antenna and itself forms the shape of a helix. This is a broadband VHF and UHF antenna 495 total views, no views today

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SPIRAL ANTENNA – Study Material

In microwave systems, a spiral antenna is a type of RF antenna. It is shaped as a two-arm spiral, or more arms may be used. Spiral antennas were first described in 1956. Spiral antennas belong to the class of frequency independent antennas which operate over a wide range of frequencies. Polarization, radiation pattern and impedance of such antennas remain unchanged over large bandwidth. […]

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Slot and Aperture Antenna – Study Material

  Slot Antenna is an example of Aperture antenna. A rectangular slot is made on the conducting sheet. These slot antennas can be formed by simply making a cut on the surface, where they are mounted on. An Antenna with an aperture at the end can be termed as an Aperture antenna. Waveguide is an example of […]

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Half Wave Dipole and Yagi-Uda Antenna – Study Material

The dipole antenna is cut and bent for effective radiation. The length of the total wire, which is being used as a dipole, equals half of the wavelength (i.e., l = λ/2). Such an antenna is called as half-wave dipole antenna. This is the most widely used antenna because of its advantages. It is also known […]

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OSCILLATING DIPOLE – Study Material

UHF half–wave dipole Dipole antenna used by the radar altimeter in an airplane A half-wave dipole antenna receiving a radio signal. The incoming radio wave (whose electric field is shown as E, green arrows) causes an oscillating electric current within the antenna elements (black arrows), alternately charging the two sides of the antenna positively (+) and negatively (−). Since the antenna is one half a wavelength […]

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ANTENNA PARAMETERS – Study Material

Radiation intensity of an antenna is closely related to the direction of the beam focused and the efficiency of the beam towards that direction. In this chapter, let us have a look at the terms that deal with these topics. Directivity According to the standard definition, “The ratio of maximum radiation intensity of the subject […]

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FUNDAMENTALS OF RADIATION – Study Material

The atom can be thought of as a system containing a positively charged nucleus and negatively charged electrons which are in orbit around the nucleus. The nucleus is the central core of the atom and is composed of two types of particles: protons which are positively charged, and neutrons which have a neutral charge. Each of these particles has […]

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ANTENNA – Study Material

In radio, an antenna is the interface between radio waves propagating through space and electric currents moving in metal conductors, used with a transmitter or receiver. In transmission, a radio transmitter supplies an electric current to the antenna’s terminals, and the antenna radiates the energy from the current as electromagnetic waves (radio waves). In reception, an antenna intercepts some of the power of an electromagnetic wave in […]

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FILTER – Study Material

In signal processing, a filter is a device or process that removes some unwanted components or features from a signal. Filtering is a class of signal processing, the defining feature of filters being the complete or partial suppression of some aspect of the signal Most often, this means removing some frequencies or frequency bands. However, filters do not exclusively act in the frequency […]

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ATTENUATOR (ELECTRONICS) – Study Material

  An attenuator is an electronic device that reduces the power of a signal without appreciably distorting its waveform. An attenuator is effectively the opposite of an amplifier, though the two work by different methods. While an amplifier provides gain, an attenuator provides loss, or gain less than 1. onstruction and usage Attenuators are usually passive devices made from simple voltage divider networks. Switching between different resistances forms adjustable stepped attenuators and continuously adjustable […]

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